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A delicious special cake for Animal Crossing

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Fans of Animal Crossing and talented bakers work together to pay tribute to Nintendo's simulated life game by creating outstanding cooking works. Nintendo's life simulation game was launched in March 2020, allowing the player to design and build his or her island community. These island towns have a huge community of animal characters, providing players with various functions. In addition, players can also enjoy various services from the ACBellsBuy website. The Buy Animal Crossing Items that…

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Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

What Is ADHD?
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a brain disorder that affects how you pay attention, sit still, and control your behavior. It happens in children and teens and can continue into adulthood.

ADHD is the most commonly diagnosed mental disorder in children. Boys are more likely to have it than girls. It’s usually spotted during the early school years, when a child begins to have problems paying attention.

ADHD can't be prevented or cured. But spotting it early, plus having a good treatment and education plan, can help a child or adult with ADHD manage their symptoms.

ADHD Symptoms
Symptoms in children

Symptoms are grouped into three types:

Inattentive. A child with ADHD:

Is easily distracted
Doesn't follow directions or finish tasks
Doesn't seem to be listening
Doesn't pay attention and makes careless mistakes
Forgets about daily activities
Has problems organizing daily tasks
Doesn’t like to do things that require sitting still
Often loses things
Tends to daydream

Hyperactive-impulsive. A child with ADHD:

Often squirms, fidgets, or bounces when sitting
Doesn't stay seated
Has trouble playing quietly
Is always moving, such as running or climbing on things. (In teens and adults, this is more often described as restlessness.)
Talks excessively
Is always “on the go,” as if “driven by a motor”
Has trouble waiting for their turn
Blurts out answers
Interrupts others

Combined. This involves signs of both other types.

Symptoms in adults

Symptoms of ADHD may change as a person gets older. They include:

Often being late or forgetting things
Anxiety
Low self-esteem
Problems at work
Trouble controlling anger
Impulsiveness
Substance misuse or addiction
Trouble staying organized
Procrastination
Easily frustrated
Often bored
Trouble concentrating when reading
Mood swings
Depression
Relationship problems
ADHD Causes
Experts aren’t sure what causes ADHD. Several things may lead to it, including:

Genes. ADHD tends to run in families.
Chemicals. Brain chemicals in people with ADHD may be out of balance.
Brain changes. Areas of the brain that control attention are less active in children with ADHD.
Poor Nutrition, infections, smoking, drinking, and substance abuse during pregnancy. These things can affect a baby’s brain development.
Toxins, such as lead. They may affect a child's brain development.
A brain injury or a brain disorder. Damage to the front of the brain, called the frontal lobe, can cause problems controlling impulses and emotions.

Sugar doesn’t cause ADHD. ADHD also isn’t caused by too much TV, a stressful home life, poor schools, or food allergies.

ADHD Diagnosis and Testing
It can be hard to diagnose ADHD, especially in children. No one test will spot it. Doctors diagnose ADHD in children and teens after discussing symptoms at length with the child, parents, and teachers, and then observing the child's behaviors.

To confirm a diagnosis of ADHD or learning differences, a child may take a battery of tests to check their neurological and psychological status. The tests should be given by a pediatrician or mental health provider with experience in diagnosing and treating ADHD. Your primary care doctor might refer you to a specialist such as a psychiatrist, psychologist, or psychotherapist. The tests may include:

A medical and social history of both the child and the family.
A physical exam and neurological assessment that includes screenings of vision, hearing, and verbal and motor skills. More tests may be given if hyperactivity may be related to another physical problem.
An evaluation of intelligence, aptitude, personality traits, or processing skills. These are often done with input from the parents and teachers if the child is of school age.
A scan called the Neuropsychiatric EEG-Based Assessment Aid (NEBA) System, which measures theta and beta brain waves. The theta/beta ratio has been shown to be higher in children and adolescents with ADHD than in children without it.

ADHD Treatment
There are several approaches to treating ADHD. But research suggests that for many children, the best way to manage symptoms is a multimodal approach. This involves multiple methods of treatment that work together. Many symptoms of ADHD can be managed with medication and therapy. Close cooperation among therapists, doctors, teachers, and parents is very important.

Medication. Although there is controversy about their possible overuse, stimulants are the most commonly prescribed medications for treating ADHD. They can help control hyperactive and impulsive behavior and improve attention span. They act on the brain chemicals, like dopamine, that can make impulsive behavior worse.

They include:

Amphetamine (Adzenys XR ODT, Dyanavel)
Dexmethylphenidate (Focalin)
Dextroamphetamine (Adderall, Dexedrine)
Lisdexamfetamine (Vyvanse)
Methylphenidate (Aptensio, Cotempla, Concerta, Daytrana, Jornay PM, Metadate, Methylin, Quillivant, Ritalin)

Stimulant medications don’t work for everyone with ADHD. People older than 6 may take nonstimulant medications such as:

Atomoxetine
Clonidine
Guanfacine

In some cases, doctors may prescribe antidepressants, such as drugs called SSRIs, bupropion (Wellbutrin), or venlafaxine (Effexor).

Side effects of ADHD medicines can include:

Anxiety
Loss of appetite
Fatigue
Crankiness
Trouble sleeping
Skin discoloration (with patches)
Upset stomach
Headache

Most side effects are minor and improve with time. In some cases, doctors may lower a dosage to ease side effects.

Before your child starts an ADHD medicine, talk to your doctor about the risks and benefits. Remember that it can take some trial and error to find the right medicine and dose.

Therapy. These treatments focus on changing behavior.

Special education helps a child learn at school. Having structure and a routine can help children with ADHD a lot.
Behavior modification teaches ways to replace bad behaviors with good ones. Let your child know what behaviors you expect of them. Make simple, clear rules. When they lose control, have them face consequences that you’ve set up, like time-outs or losing privileges. Keep an eye out for good behavior. When they keep their impulses in check, reward them.
Psychotherapy can help someone with ADHD learn better ways to handle their emotions and frustration. It could help improve their self-esteem. Counseling may also help family members better understand a child or adult with ADHD.
Social skills training can teach behaviors, such as taking turns and sharing.

Support groups of people with similar problems and needs can help you learn more about ADHD and how to manage your symptoms. These groups are helpful for adults with ADHD or parents of children with ADHD.

Education and ADHD. Educating parents about the disorder and its management is another important part of ADHD treatment. This may include learning parenting skills to help a child manage their behavior. In some cases, the child's entire family may be involved.

Natural remedies

Dietary supplements with omega-3s have shown some benefit for people who have ADHD.

A few lifestyle changes can also help you or your child manage symptoms:

Eat a healthy diet with lots of fruits, veggies, whole grains, and lean protein.
Get some exercise every day. Studies find that exercise helps control impulses and other behavior problems in kids with ADHD. Think about signing your child up for a sports team, such as basketball, soccer, or baseball. Playing a sport not only gives kids exercise, it teaches them important social skills, such as how to follow rules and take turns.
Limit time spent on electronic devices.
Get plenty of sleep.
Simplify your child's room to lessen distractions, like toys, and improve organization.

ADHD Outlook
Without treatment, ADHD can make it hard to deal with the challenges of everyday life. Children may have trouble learning or developing social skills. Adults could have problems with relationships and addiction. The disorder could also lead to mood swings, depression, low self-esteem, eating disorders, risk-taking, and conflicts with people around you.

But many people who have ADHD live happy, full lives. Treatment helps.

It’s important to keep track of your symptoms and see your doctor regularly. Sometimes, medication and treatments that were once effective stop working. You may need to change your treatment plan. Some people’s symptoms get better in early adulthood, and some are able to stop treatment.

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