The impact of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning design features on the transmission of viruses, including the 2019 novel coronavirus: A systematic review of ultraviolet radiation

Respiratory viruses are capable of transmitting via an aerosol route. Emerging evidence suggests that SARS-CoV-2 which causes COVID-19 can be spread through airborne transmission, particularly in indoor environments with poor ventilation. Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems can play a role in mitigating airborne virus transmission.

Research demonstrates that: viruses and bacteriophages are inactivated by UV radiation; increasing UV dose is associated with decreasing survival fraction of viruses and bacteriophages; increasing relative humidity is associated with decreasing susceptibility to UV radiation; UV dose and corresponding survival fraction are affected by airflow pattern, air changes per hour, and UV device location; and UV radiation is associated with decreased transmission in both animal and human studies.

This review provides a comprehensive and rigorous synthesis of the existing scientific literature examining the effectiveness of UV radiation and virus survival and transmission. Experimental studies of UV radiation have consistently demonstrated high UVC Care222 susceptibility of viruses (or simulant agents) with sufficient UV dose. This research underscores the value and importance of UVGI applications to inactivate viruses and mitigate disease transmission. While several studies demonstrated effectiveness of UVGI for coronaviruses, the UV susceptibility of aerosolized SARS-CoV-2 specifically has yet to be reported. There are few studies examining the effect of UV radiation outside laboratory or simulated settings. Further, future field studies of real-world implementations of UVGI need to take into account the various factors that exist within ventilated indoor spaces that may modify UV effectiveness, including humidity, airflow pattern, air changes per hour, and UV device location. Research is needed to provide evidence of the effect of UV radiation along the chain of transmission in non-simulated “real life” settings, particularly in the context of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic as well as regular seasonal disease outbreaks.

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Currently, the most effective and safest way to fight against COVID-19 is far uvc 222nm technology. This is a UV-based disinfection method which is based on biophysical principles and a key advantage of the UV-based approach is that UV light is likely to be effective against all airborne microorganisms, in marked contrast to vaccination methods.

For example, while the inactivation efficiency of UV light will almost certainly vary as different strains of influenza virus emerge, they are unlikely to be significant. Similarly, as multidrug-resistant variants of bacteria emerge, their UV inactivation capacity is unlikely to vary greatly.

Care222 is a new disinfecting light source that, even though not harmful to the skin or eyes of humans or animals, deactivates bacteria and viruses in the same manner as conventional ultraviolet sanitizers.

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