Just like any passionate collector of antique glass you will have surely come across the name Rene Lalique. Antique Lalique glass is a much sought after collectible in today's culture. Rene Lalique initially began as a jeweller, but it was his designs in glass that were to make a lasting impression on the world and his pieces are tremendously valuable throughout the world.
Upon opening his first glassworks in 1902 in Clairfontaine he manufactured designs of decorative panels and glass plaques. Lalique soon applied some of his jewellery making skills to the glass making process and used a technique called "cire purdue" or "lost wax" to create some of his first pieces.
Lalique created perfume bottles for Francois Coty who was one of his first patrons and in total created 16 different perfume bottles in Custom Perfume Boxes the famous Lalique glass designs. Lalique also created many glass panel windows and other glass objects for Coty in his offices in New York. On the strength of the commissions from Coty, Lalique had to open up a larger glass works in Combs-la-Ville.
After opening the new glassworks in Combs-la-Ville Lalique created perfume bottles for other top perfumers and also started a Lalique line of perfume bottles. Production came to standstill during the First World War, when the war ended Lalique reviewed his glassmaking business and decided to continue with some new and different designs and started to create pairs of love birds and parakeets. This design theme continued throughout the height of his career.
Lalique wanted more, he wanted to be able to create pieces that were affordable for the masses and not just designer pieces, and with this in mind he opened another glassworks with a much bigger production facility in Wingen-sur-Moder. Press moulding techniques were mastered and a line of vases were created including the Naiades, Palestre, Ronces and Archer vases. During the 1920's and 1930's Lalique created some of the most collectible items of today such as car mascots. He created a total of 20 and they were created in the shape of peacocks, horses and roosters.
Also during the 1930's Lalique created tableware, glassware, ashtrays, boxes and clocks. During the great depression of the 1930's the production plant in Combs-la-Ville was forced to close down and with the onset of the Second World War Lalique also had to close another of his production plants. Two days after the end of the Second World War Lalique passed away and production was never continued.
Some of the most expensive and collectible Lalique glass today are the car mascots that are shaped like animals and much of his first creations using the lost wax technique are also highly collectible. Many of the mass produced items that were created during the great depression are not as valuable or collectible as some of the earlier commissioned pieces of glass. Although many of these pieces are less expensive to collect they were all produced to the highest quality and still make a wonderful addition to many Lalique collectors' collection.
The rules and regulations of LTL shipping can sometimes seem overwhelming, even to the most seasoned shipper. After all, there's much to understand to keep things running efficiently.
For instance, you need to know how your product is defined by the trucking industry (referred to as the product or freight's NMFC), how to properly prepare your shipping documentation and how the freight should be properly packaged or bundled. You'll also want to evaluate carriers and the variety of options that are available to you for getting your freight to its final destination as quickly, reliably and cost effective as possible.
When it comes to getting your products to your customer, one of the first things you need to consider is how your product is defined by the trucking industry.
In the world of LTL shipping, different types of products - from steel bolts to auto parts to blenders - are defined according to their makeup. Each product definition is called a classification. The class of your freight plays a prominent role in calculating the freight charge for transporting the shipment.
How are freight classes determined? The many classes of freight are catalogued in the National Motor Freight Classification tariff, commonly referred to as the NMFC. The NMFC is a publication for motor carriers containing rules, descriptions, and ratings of all commodities moving in commerce. The publication is used to classify freight for freight billing and rating purposes.
Besides defining the classes of shipping commodities, the NMFC also assigns item numbers to each type of commodity. The item number is related not only to the commodity itself, but to the material from which the commodity is made, its packaging, and other factor and considerations. Item numbers are associated with rates as well as commodity classifications.
With page after page of item numbers, commodity descriptions, and freight classes, the NMFC is an excellent reference book for the transportation professional. They also offer an online version of the reference book as well called, ClassIt. The book also describes shippers' responsibilities, as well as many of the responsibilities of the LTL carriers.
What do all these different freight classes mean?
As mentioned, several elements, including density and value, determine the freight classification of a commodity. Take ping pong balls, for example. Ping pong balls are class 500 (the most expensive freight class) because of their density, or lack thereof! A carrier can fill an entire freight trailer full of ping pong balls without having much weight loaded. Since rates are based on weight and density, the rate for transporting ping pong balls is higher than it would be for something like heavy steel parts.
But even with very low-density freight, there are ways to reduce your freight rate charges. Looking at another example from the NMFC to see how you can lower your freight charges by accepting some of the risk (or limiting the value of your goods in the event of loss or damage).
Perfumes in barrels or boxes may be classified under NMFC item 59070, class 85. But NMFC note 60000 states that as the shipper, you may declare a "released value" in writing on the bill of lading. In this case, the released value of the property cannot exceed $2.15 per pound. If you put this released value on the bill of lading at the time of shipment, your barrel of perfume's class will be reduced to class 70.
This means a lower shipping rate. In turn, the carrier has limited its liability to $2.15 per pound should damage or loss happen to the shipment. Therefore, stating the released value of your goods on the bill of lading and accepting the associated protection tradeoffs can adjust your classification and lower your rates.
How Freight Rates Are Calculated
Freight rates are based on many factors, including:
1.The distance the shipment is moving
2.The shipment's weight
3.The density of the commodity being shipped
4.The commodity's susceptibility to damage
5.The value of the commodity
6.The commodity's loadability and handling characteristics
The last four elements (among other criteria) go into establishing the classification of a commodity. The NMFC, or National Motor Freight Classification tariff, contains all product classifications. There are eighteen possible classes ranging from 50 to 500. The higher the class, the higher the rate for every hundred pounds you ship. Most less-than-truckload rates are stated as a rate per hundred pounds, or per hundredweight. Rates are structured so that as the weight of your shipment increases, the rate per hundred pounds decreases.
For example: a shipment weighing 100 pounds may cost $41.00 per hundredweight, while a heavier shipment--say, 500 pounds--of the same commodity (moving to the same final destination) may only cost $35.00 per hundredweight. But doing the math, we see that the total charges for the 500 pound shipment are higher (5x$35 is greater than 1x$41). Most LTL carriers state a minimum charge for very light shipments.
Before You Ship
No matter which LTL carrier you select to transport your goods, taking a few important steps before the driver arrives for pickup can keep business running smoothly:
1.Prepare your packaging
Secure and proper packaging helps ensure trouble-free shipping. It also helps limit any possible damage from transloading the packaged freight. All goods should be protected with proper packaging in compliance with the NMFC. (For hints and examples, take a look at the examples under Preparing Your Package below.)
2.Label every piece clearly and completely
Complete names and addresses on each piece are needed to ensure that packages in your shipment arrive intact. Label placement is important too. (For hints and examples, take a look at the examples under Proper Labeling below.)
3.Complete a bill of lading
The bill of lading is a legal contract between the shipper or a 3rd Party Logistics Provider (3PL) and the carrier. It should state exactly what is being shipped, where it's coming from and where it's going to, etc. If using a 3PL, they will usually provide a system generated BOL for the shipper to use for the freight shipment.
4.Select a carrier
Selection criteria are often based on the commodity you are shipping, the services the carrier can provide, where your shipment is going, the date by which the shipment should arrive, and the cost of these services. You must evaluate the options based on your company's freight shipping needs.
5.Place the order
Depending on the time of your order,