Nicotine itself is not addictive, but it's accountable for releasing dopamine, a neurotransmitter associated with pleasure and reinforcements in mental performance, thus inducing addictive tendencies in humans. Nicotine is just a chemical present in tobacco leaf, the key ingredient in cigarettes and is said to cause addiction and disease in cigarette smokers, (World Health Organization น้ำยาบุหรี่ไฟฟ้า salt nic.
Nicotine mimics the activities of acetylcholine, a naturally occurring neurotransmitter in the central nervous system and the nerve-muscle junction of skeletal muscles. Acetylcholine is accountable for excitability, that causes increase heartrate, alertness, and reaction times, (Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1989; 97(2):257-61.). Because acetylcholine and nicotine are chemically similar, they trigger the same cholinergic receptors in the brain. The nicotine-acetylcholine receptors contain nerve endings that release dopamine when coupled or bind with nicotine or acetylcholine. Receptors are like cups having the precise dimensions that'll fit a neurotransmitter molecule, such as acetylcholine.
The cup itself is lined with nerve endings (tips of neurons). It's these nerve endings that release dopamine once the neurotransmitter acetylcholine binds with the cup-like acetylcholine receptors (cholinergic receptors). A reinforcing and reward phenomenon of dopamine develops since the dopamine that's released from the nerve endings initiates an atmosphere of pleasure in the individual's brain. The reinforcement mechanism is initiated once the brain becomes hooked on the pleasure caused by the dopamine that's released from the cholinergic receptors. Which means that mental performance is consistently seeking to be pleasured. So, what will happen in case of cigarette smokers is that they may continue steadily to smoke cigarettes and so the nicotine from the cigarette can induce the release of dopamine in mental performance, causing them to feel happy every time they smoke a cigarette, (Nature Reviews Neuroscience 7, 967-975 (December 2006)).
Initially cigarette smokers smoked cigarettes there have been only some cholinergic receptors available since the natural action of acetylcholine only needs the standard amount of receptors provided of course to complete its job. However, the increase concentration of nicotine available caused the standard amounts of cholinergic receptors to become desensitized to the clear presence of the increased amount of nicotine in the cholinergic receptors. This desensitization causes the production or growth and development of more cholinergic receptors. These extra cholinergic receptors will quickly become desensitized from the extra nicotine available. Such processes occur until equilibrium is reached. Equilibrium is reached when cigarette smokers decide on the total amount of cigarettes they'll consume or smoke in confirmed day. Currently, a fixed amount of receptors will soon be available for the addiction to continue. Smokers will normally say they smoke one or two packs per day. They said so due to the amount of receptors available to allow for two packs of cigarettes in a day.
A detrimental effect of all this really is the fact that such large amounts of cholinergic receptors are now available and hungry for nicotine. So, they could stimulate dopamine to pleasure the cigarette smoker. This really is the reason why cigarette smokers employ a difficult time quitting. The very best approach therefore for a cigarette smoker to used in quitting is to gradually scale back on the total amount of cigarettes smoked in confirmed time interval.
In addition to the dopamine-inducing effect of nicotine, is the speeding-up of the center rate by nicotine whenever a cigarette is smoked. From a medical perspective, constantly having a synthetic upsurge in heartrate isn't a good idea either. For a very important factor, a constant upsurge in heartrate by drugs such as nicotine could cause cardiovascular disease, (WHO).
Based on the World Health Organization, tobacco use contributes to diseases affecting the center and lungs, such as heart attacks, strokes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), emphysema, and cancer. Most cigarette induced cancers are lung cancer, cancers of the larynx, mouth, and pancreas. Cigarette smoke also causes myocardial infarctions, peripheral vascular disease and hypertension. The World Health Organization estimates that tobacco is accountable for about 5.4 million deaths in 2004 and about 100 million deaths during the 20th century.
In addition to its addictive effects on the central nervous system, cigarette smoke contains numerous cancer-causing agents. They work by binding to DNA causing many genetic mutations. Nicotine might be the key culprit that's doing the binding to DNA causing genetic mutations, which leads to cancer. Nicotine is said to disrupt the natural processes of apoptosis (programmed cell death) by binding to DNA in cells, (National Institute of Health (NIH)). Defective cells contain junk DNA and other waste materials. When apoptosis is inhibited, natural cell death does not occur; instead, defective cells are permitted to proliferate or grow larger, uncontrollably. It's this that happens in cancer and the primary reason why cigarette smokers are far more susceptible to developing cancers.
When apoptosis is uncontrollably set off by chemicals, such as nicotine, it causes normal cells to die off. This may be what's happening in the center tissues of cigarette smokers who suffer from cardiovascular disease and may be what's taking invest the extremities of cigarette smokers, who often complain of excessive coldness inside their fingers, arms, toes, and legs, where circulation is lowest.
There are no existing studies to aid this exact explanation. However, on the basis of the familiarity with known scientific proof apoptosis and the upsurge in death rates of cigarette smokers, this hypothetical explanation has some credence; and will continue to possess credence until proven otherwise! There's something deadly that's happening to cigarette smokers and nicotine is one of many agents behind it.
The tar in cigarette smoke is also a realtor that sucks the life out of cigarette smokers. The lung of a cigarette smoker is really as black as the color of asphalt. It's like a serious piece of burnt pot roast. For this reason most cigarette smokers have difficulty breathing. It's next to impossible for air to pass freely down the airways of smokers. The sad thing is that it's problematic for cigarette smokers to quit. So, they continue down the road of destruction, day after day, puffing on the silent killer--cigarette smoking.
One extremely important treatment for quitting smoking is smoking one less cigarette a day or even one less cigarette in per month if one less cigarette a day is too steep of a modification to the deadly habit. If one normally smokes a bunch of cigarettes a day, that individual should remove some of those cigarettes and discard it--throw it in the trash can. Understand that the smoking of cigarettes started gradually. No one started smoking a bunch of cigarettes a day because awful beginning stage of smoking cigarettes. Smoking one less cigarette per a particular time frame can help get rid of the excessive cholinergic receptors that nicotine so dearly craves.
Wellbutrin is another method for helping people stop smoking. Wellbutrin is definitely an antidepressant drug employed by individuals with depression. However, it's very potent in helping people kick the deadly habit of cigarette smoking. It could be taken while smoking, unlike other smoking cessation agents. Wellbutrin blocks nicotine receptors and weakens the action of dopamine reuptake by neurons, (J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2000 Oct; 295(1):321-7.).
Cigarette smokers who're thinking about quitting should implement a fitness program inside their schedule because the possible lack of nicotine in ex-cigarette smokers causes weight-gain. How can we all know this? Former cigarette smokers who kicked the habit complain of putting on weight after they quit smoking. Ask any ex-cigarette smoker. One will hear the same thing. Nicotine induces weight-loss in smokers. For this reason most cigarette smokers are skinny or slim. If a cigarette smoker is overweight while smoking cigarettes, then that person should seek medical attention because there is actually a very dangerous medical condition lurking in the shadows.
Glenford S Robinson, BS, CLS (ASCP), is just a Clinical Laboratory Scientist, Journalist (American Chronicle), and Staff Writer for น้ำยาบุหรี่ไฟฟ้า salt nica social networking website and articles directory providing its members and visitors with up-to-the-minute news and entertainment and the opportunity to submit articles free.